In the modern era, everything in the world is moving into advance technology. When we consider agriculture, so many advancements were made for production, harvesting and post harvesting operations. If the farmers are facing any problems in the above operations, then immediate solutions are available. But what about marketing of agricultural produce which was produced by farmers? Farmers were facing so many challenges for selling the produce. At least it should meet out their expenses and the production cost. Sometimes that is also not possible. To feed the 134 crores of Indian population, everyone is focusing on the production of food grains, fruits and vegetables. After producing the commodities, whether the produce is reaching all the people of the country. Every day, 7000 people are dying because of hunger. Government have taken so many steps to improve the agricultural marketing so that farmers also can get benefit, at the same time all the people will be having access to the commodities produced by the farmers. Presently marketing in agriculture is managed by states, like regulated market, APMC (Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing Committee) mandis and farmers market. But farmers were facing challenges to sell the product at appropriate price in these markets also.
In 2014-15 and 2015-16 budget, the government announced to set up an “Agri-Tech Infrastructure Fund” and National Agricultural Market. Government approved a central sector scheme for Promotion of National Agricultural Market through Agri-Tech Infrastructure Fund on 01st July, 2015 with a budget allocation of Rs.200 crore. eNAM was launched on 14th April, 2016 by Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India has appointed Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) as the Lead Implementing Agency of eNAM.
eNAM – Integrating APMC mandis across the country through a common platform to facilitate Pan – India trade in agricultural commodities. At present, there are totally 585 markets from 16 states and 2 union territories integrated on eNAM. Farmers can also register as a group in eNAM to ease the function. Currently there are 826 FPO’s (Farmer Producer Organisation) were registered in eNAM. They have to register in the name of FPO and all the transfers will be made to common bank account of FPO. There are nearly 150 commodities (food grains/cereals, fruits, vegetables, spices, oilseeds and miscellaneous) were transacted across the country. The underdeveloped districts from each state of the country were identified and steps were taken to quick and effective transformation of digital market.
How it works? Farmers were taking their produce to nearby eNAM. They have to register in the eNAM through mobile application or mandi registration at the gate entry. There was no fee for registration in eNAM. The mandatory details for registration are Name, Sex, Address, DOB, Mobile Number, Bank details etc. The documents needed are passbook and any government identity proof. eNAM records all arrivals digitally and assigns Lot ID for the produce.
These ID can be tracked from the mobile until it is sold. This helps in reducing the time of transaction in an eNAM mandi. The officer at eNAM mandi will do assaying by taking sample from the produce of the farmer after that, it will enter into online trading (bidding). The produce was weighed by weighbridge/ weigh scale and sale agreement was signed after invoice was generated. The direct online payment was made in eNAM by NEFT, RTGS, BHIM, UPI, Net banking, Cheque/challan. And atlast farmers will exit from the mandi ( post trade, goods return and permit).
Farmers can get real time information on commodities arrival and price in nearby mandis. Traders also getting access for different sellers and more markets.
eNAM facilitates quality assaying to 150 commodities based on DMI(Directorate of Marketing and Inspection) specified parameters. Presently out of 16 states and 2 union territories, except Tamilnadu and Puducherry eNAM mandis, all mandis are doing live online trading. Some of the states like Andhra Pradesh, Uttarpradesh are already started doing interstate trading. Mobile application was also launched in 9 languages for ease of business. Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Andhra Pradesh states were giving payment related incentives like Best farmer award and rebate on mandi fees. Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Telangana states were giving trade related incentives like Best Trader award and exemption of market fee for traders. So, many states and mandis are performing well, out of that Nizamabad Mandi was awarded as Highest commodity arrivals Mandi of India. Government plans to link 22000 mandis and all 7500 APMC with eNAM by 2022.
Even though so many measures have been taken by the government, still the awareness about eNAM among the farmers was not notable. State government have to take definite measures to create awareness about eNAM among the farmers and traders, and already registered eNAM have to extend their operations like tapping the untapped area, more number of commodities, live trading and interstate trading. This will help to remove the middlemen in the market. Both farmers and traders will get benefited from the national agricultural market. Everyone will support for the One step towards The future agricultural market – eNAM
Author, Devika R, done B.Sc (Agriculture) at Imayam Institute of Agriculture and Technology, Thuraiyur affiliated to Tamilnadu Agricultural University. Presently she is pursuing an MBA in Agribusiness Management at Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Bihar.